Thursday, December 23, 2010

Do science to learn science?

Sir Ken's talk hits so many issues really well.  The creativity of children.  The "not one right answer."  Collaboration. 

I can't think of a better example of these themes has just come out in Biology Letters.  It's an article published by 25 8- to 10-year-old children.  It's a delightful piece (made open access for the time being) written in the language of the children with hand-drawn figures.  I can't put it better than the abstract, which is downright poetic:

Background Real science has the potential to not only amaze, but also transform the way one thinks of the world and oneself. This is because the process of science is little different from the deeply resonant, natural processes of play. Play enables humans (and other mammals) to discover (and create) relationships and patterns. When one adds rules to play, a game is created. This is science: the process of playing with rules that enables one to reveal previously unseen patterns of relationships that extend our collective understanding of nature and human nature. When thought of in this way, science education becomes a more enlightened and intuitive process of asking questions and devising games to address those questions. But, because the outcome of all game-playing is unpredictable, supporting this ‘messyness’, which is the engine of science, is critical to good science education (and indeed creative education generally). [...]
Principal finding ‘We discovered that bumble-bees can use a combination of colour and spatial relationships in deciding which colour of flower to forage from. We also discovered that science is cool and fun because you get to do stuff that no one has ever done before. (Children from Blackawton)’.
Download the paper, and take a look at the video in the supplement (Royal Society doesn't support embedding).

The paper doesn't cite any scientific literature, which led to its rejection by Science and Nature.  The abstract also gives a persuasive argument about why:

Although the historical context of any study is of course important, including references in this instance would be disingenuous for two reasons. First, given the way scientific data are naturally reported, the relevant information is simply inaccessible to the literate ability of 8- to 10-year-old children, and second, the true motivation for any scientific study (at least one of integrity) is one’s own curiousity, which for the children was not inspired by the scientific literature, but their own observations of the world. This lack of historical, scientific context does not diminish the resulting data, scientific methodology or merit of the discovery for the scientific and ‘non-scientific’ audience. On the contrary, it reveals science in its truest (most naive) form, and in this way makes explicit the commonality between science, art and indeed all creative activities.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Ken Robinson: Changing education paradigms

Carl's comment on the last post is a perfect segue to this next Ted Talk. Also, I LOVE the animation! Enjoy!

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Diana Laufenberg: How to learn? From mistakes

Here is a ten minute ted talk on experiential learning:

I like how she talks about the idea of moving away from 'one right answer', getting rid of standardized testing, and how failure is a part of learning. I know there are some issues with experiential learning (so this is not a panacea for our educational system), but are also definitely many things we can learn from successes in this area. This is one way to get students motivated by and involved in their own education.

Monday, December 6, 2010

Formative Assessment

A few weeks ago we opened our meeting with a quiz. The quiz was designed to demonstrate one method of formative assessment, using a pre-test and a post-test. We reflected on how this made us feel as 'students' and discovered that some people felt calm, others competitive, and others neutral. In our friendly environment, no one felt pressured or nervous. This is one goal to strive for during formative assessment, encouraging the students to be comfortable so that they accurately represent what they have learned.

We then discussed formative assessment. The definition of formative assessment is assessment designed to allow the teacher to assess learning during the course of instruction and adapt their teaching style to the needs of their students. The assessment process involves four main components: instruction, assessment within a relatively short time, prompt evaluation, and distribution of constructive feedback. It is especially important for the teacher to provide constructive feedback on formative assessments in order for students to respond and learn from their assessment. It is also equally as important for the teacher to adapt their teaching methods when students do not demonstrate sufficient learning.

According to some instructors formative assessment should have the following distinct characteristics: Questions should be open-ended, allowing the students creativity in their answer and avoiding the tendency for teachers to test the students ability to complete a specific type of exam. Students should not be graded on assessments so that they do not feel pressured and are comfortable communicating what they have learned. Lastly, assessments should be frequent enough to demonstrate continued learning and changes in learning throughout the instruction period.

Formative assessments do not have to be quizzes. They can take a variety of forms. In class discussions can serve as a formative assessment. Work in small groups can be used. Open-ended writing prompts or student reflections on a concept or topic can all be used as formative assessments. Using a variety of assessment techniques ensures that all students will have the opportunity to contribute in a manner in which they feel comfortable during the learning period.

After discussing formative assessment, we discussed in groups how we would each engineer formative assessments for our own area of teaching. As a biologist, I feel diagramming or explaining biological processes would be serve as good formative assessments. Discussions on concepts, such as symbiosis and mutualisms for example would also be good. Others in my group discussed asking the students to explain the steps to a complex math problem or dissect a historical argument.

When used frequently and effectively, formative assessment can be valuable in making us more aware of areas to improve and ensuring that our students are achieving our learning goals during the course of instruction.

Monday, November 29, 2010

Creative thinking

This week Mikaela Huntzinger (CETL, UCDavis teaching hero) is leading a session on creativity: what do we really mean by it, how to cultivate it in learning environments, how to use writing exercises to get your creative juices flowing.

We started with some intro brainstorming: why do students think science is recitation or right/wrong? how can we enhance creative problem solving with the "right" learning environment? how can we use creativity to reach out to other disciplines? how do we foster creativity in writing?

What is creativity? Different fields may have different interpretations of what it means, so we brainstormed some definitions:

-balance of novelty within a framework, like cooking well without recipe
-combination of existing ideas into new ones, or applying existing knowledge to new contexts (synthesis)
- freedom with a purpose (more effective with some constraints rather than in a vacuum)
- making connections (easier if the parts of the systems are identified)
- flexibility to move between perspectives
-bringing self into task, self expression (ownership of a project)

How can we be more creative? Some tips:

- Relax! you cannot be creative if you are too tense/scared/stressed.
- Separate brainstorming from critiquing (coming up with 6 stupid ideas makes it more likely to come up with a 7th great idea, more effective than shooting down each stupid idea)
- Take the pressure away from yourself, e.g. by thinking that you are a conduit for creativity, instead of the generator of it.
- You need to invest time to get the creative outcome you are interested in. Great creative output is build with daily work.
- If brainstorming in writing, write continuously, don't pause. Keep your pen moving until your next thought comes up.

We did a guided activity to demonstrate the point. Here it is!

Write your question at top of page (e.g. which direction do I want my practice/research to go towards?). give yourself 30-40 min. Follow the principles above. This is just brainstorming. Guided Relaxation (~10 min). Start writing right after relaxation, i.e. you are still in a very relaxed mood. Can pause after 20 min and highlight ideas you like most. Then transfer them to next sheet and keep writing from there.

Suggested reference:

“The creative habit” by Twyla Tharp

Other good articles:

1. Teaching creativity and inventive problem-solving in science (DeHaan 2009):

2. Science as structured imagination (De Cruz and De Smedt 2010):π=2

3. Stimulating creativity: Teaching engineers to be innovators (Richards 1998):

4. Differential effects of divergent thinking, domain knowledge, and interest on creative performance in art and math (Jeon et al. 2011):

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Intrinsic Motivation and the Influence of Culture on Learning

This meeting was designed to get us thinking about our ability to create a culturally responsive environment that reaches out to diverse learners. The following questions are some prompts that we can use to get started:

1. Think of at least three experiences in your life in which you were highly motivated to learn. What were you interested in and why? Which people/teachers influenced you most during this time? What did these people do to ignite your passion?
We went on to consider the cultural foundations of motivation. The following reflections were used to help us start this process:

2. Contextualize your learning experience not only by what happen, but also the cultural environment in which is took place. In particular, compare and contrast your answers to the following two sets of questions.

I. What did you actually learn: What were you learning? Who were two major influences in this particular educational experience? On a scale of 1-100 how dedicated to your learning were you (1 = no motivation, 100 = extremely high)? How do you use the skills you attained during this time today?

II. How did the cultural perspective around you affect your learning: Where did the majority of your learning take place? In what language did you learn? How well did your teachers understand your cultural identity? How well did other people in your learning environment understand your culture (fellow students, friends, family, etc)?

In going through this exercise, do you feel you were extremely comfortable and supported in your learning? Were there other people who you identified with that helped support you as you continued in your education?

Now imagine a student in your class who does not identify with most of the students in class, who doesn’t have very similar experiences and whose social support network is far displaced from the educational environment. How can you as a teacher use the shared time and energy available to you to help this student proactively build a new support network and bring her own cultural identity into the learning process?

We went on to briefly list some simple ideas that we can implement to break down barriers to learning by introducing culture into the educational environment:

3. Can you think of any simple and effective ways to represent cultural diversity in your classroom and learning environment. Examples include:

Example 1: Playing warm up music in five minutes before class from all over the world.

Example 2: Have a sign: "I am interested in your culture" that is displayed in my office.

Example 3: Asking each student to teach me how to say hello in their native language and use this greeting in future lectures.

Example 4: Keep an Atlas on hand in office hours and have visitors show me where their family came from and tell me a little about what that place is like.

Example 5:Keep a publicly accessible list in your office. On this list, have your students suggest cultural foods they think you should try, as well as a small description where these food come from and a few places (locally) you might be able to find them. Make a commitment to try at least five of these in any given quarter and share your experiences with the class during warm up.

This discussion was meant to introduce this line of thinking to our participants. There is much to be said about the role of culture in learning (the culture of the individual students, the educators understanding of culture, and the learning culture of the institution). We as educators have the power and ability to help students create and understand. Being aware of these issues is one way to improve ourselves as we educate others. If you are interested in learning more about this topic, you might start with:

Creating Highly Motivating Classrooms for All Students: A Schoolwide Approach to Powerful Teaching with Diverse Learners by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond J. Wlodkowski

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Peer instruction: why and how?

Last monday we discussed student-centered learning, or more specifically peer instruction. We started by watching part of a talk by Eric Mazur (embedded below) recounting how he got "converted" to peer instruction, providing some data on how well it worked in his physics class, and showing an example of peer instruction activity. I'd encourage you to watch it all, it's informative and entertaining. Before meeting, we read a paper by Felder and Brent addressing the issue from another angle: what are the obstacles to implementing peer instruction (and some solutions)?

We divided into small groups and allowed ourselves to explore the topic from the angle that most interested us. Some points discussed include:
  • logistical issues: high noise background can leave out some students; having the right room to break into small groups helps (but it can work in "theater" rooms too)
  • students dislike the new method (at least at first): you can explain what you are doing and why it works, be clear on expectations, reassure them that with "unconventional" methods they'll be able to do good in conventional exams;
  • free-riders in group work: some use a peer evaluation form, but it doesn't seem to work well;
  • assigning readings before class meetings: can enforce via quiz, short writing in class, having questions about the reading in exams. It is more productive to use class time to discuss (e.g. you don't read Shakespeare in class)
  • teacher's fears: do I lose control? do I need to have several back-up plans depending on how the class session goes? what if students don't like it and give me poor evaluations?
It's a very broad subject, we'll probably discuss some aspects of it in the future! also check out other resources on this topic from a previous GTC post.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Reflection as a Tool for Improvement

All of us in the GTC likely strive to improve our teaching, and we do so in any number of ways: we assign new material, tweak our lesson plans, try out different classroom techniques, develop our presentation skills, or make other modifications to our practice. However, many of us don’t consciously reflect on the reasons for the many changes we might make. In fact, we often don’t consciously reflect on our teaching at all.

In last week’s GTC, we talked about integrating reflection into our regular teaching schedules. Rather than waiting to reflect when a situation specifically calls for it -- during pre-service training and pedagogy classes, or when asked for a teaching philosophy statement -- reflecting more often can improve our teaching and enrich our understanding of our roles as educators.

We opened the session by offering GTC members the chance to practice reflection. You can try this too! We offered the questions below as starting points and spent five minutes writing. (If you find yourself sitting and thinking instead of writing, just write what you are thinking!)

Sample Pre-Teaching Reflection Questions
  • What are my learning goals for this lesson/course/class?
  • What do I want to improve about my own teaching today?
  • What assumptions do I have about my students when they enter my classroom? How do these assumptions affect my interactions with them, and what and how I teach?

Once group members had written for a few minutes we asked everyone to share their thoughts about the process. Instead of focusing on ideas and answers to the questions, we discussed what it was like to reflect and also how writing like this before every class might help us as educators. Several group members commented that even this brief freewrite had provided them with new perspectives on their teaching and had inspired new plans for future practice.

After this practice run and debriefing conversation, we introduced the cycle of Prepare ---> Enact ---> Reflect and acknowledged that many of us get stuck solely preparing and enacting, without reflecting or without incorporating this reflection into our next phase of preparation. Reflection can actually be an important way of completing the cycle.

We moved on to discuss different reflection frameworks to use when deciding the types of questions we’d like to ask ourselves about our teaching. Based on Pete Adamy and Tyrone Howard’s work, we identified three modes of reflection that take place at different depths:
  • Procedural Reflection: Focuses on the events that take place in the classroom (What happened?)
  • Task Analysis: Focuses on how each activity plays out (What worked and how or why?)
  • Critical Reflection: Explores the larger significance of our roles as educators (How does my identity play out in the classroom? What does my teaching practice mean for me as a teacher/scholar/member of the university community?, etc)
According to to professional development literature educators typically experience an evolution in their focus, from teacher to curriculum and finally to student, and we discussed this in terms of the different perspectives that reflection might take. At different points, reflection might focus on:
  • The Teacher (Am I speaking clearly? Am I making eye contact?)
  • The Curriculum (How can I organize my content? What is important for students to know?)
  • The student (What are students taking away from my classroom? Are my students engaged?)

For the remainder of the session, we shared different reflection practices and ideas and briefly addressed post-teaching reflection questions, although we didn’t have time to complete another reflective freewrite. Below we have posted a few prompts for you to use after the next time you teach, as well as a few activities and ideas to encourage reflection and some discussion questions for this post’s comments section.

Sample Post-Teaching Reflection Questions
  • What went well, what could have gone better, or what can I do next time?
  • What did class feel like today?
  • Did I accomplish the goals I set up?

Reflection Practices and Possibilities
  • Keep a regular blog or journal that you write in as soon after teaching as possible
  • Have students submit comments and/or questions on index cards at the end of class
  • Ask students to reflect on their learning and, based on their responses, reflect on the class as a whole
  • Conduct written midquarter evaluations
  • Contact the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning to request their services, including midquarter interviews with students and videorecording of instruction
  • Find a teaching colleague and make plans to talk regularly after teaching, to observe each other teaching, or to support each other in other ways

Discussion Questions for Comments Section Below
  • Can you think of any other pre or post reflection questions? What are they?
  • What kinds of reflection techniques do you use? How are they helpful to you?


Adamy, Pete. “The Value of Reflective Frameworks for Pre-Service Teacher Reflection in Electronic Portfolios.” (DRAFT)
Howard, Tyrone. “Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Ingredients for Critical Teacher Reflection.”

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Teaching physics/chemistry in the kitchen

Ok, not a new idea, but using a kitchen-lab to teach physics and chemistry (and I'd add microbiology!) can be: hands-on, "real-life" relevant, fun, possibly culturally diverse and inclusive...what do you think? any other example of cross-discipline classes you found effective?

e.g., see last yeast's post on this art-science fusion class!

Thursday, October 14, 2010

The Writing Process

This week we discussed the writing process, why it is fundamentally challenging for students, and an activity that might help them overcome some of these problems. We tried to keep our brainstorming broad, so that it could apply to most kinds of writing and writing assignments with which students are presented.

We began by acknowledging that writing is a multi-phase process which includes (but is not limited to):
-Understanding and addressing the question/prompt
-Brainstorming with peers/group discussion
-Reading critically/researching the topic
-Evaluating sources as reliable (this can be particularly challenging if students are allowed to use internet sources)
-Peer editing

Once we had evaluated the steps inherent in the writing process, we were able to identify some common pitfalls of writing that make the process difficult for students. These difficulties might include trouble with:
-Understanding the goal of the writing assignment
-Understanding writing as a multi-step process
-Being comfortable with jargon/vocabulary specific to the discipline
-Organization of the paper
-Overall confidence
-Staying on topic
-Transition sentences
-Command of the English language (particularly applicable to ESL students)
-Effectively researching/use of resources/using the library
-Being convinced that their writing and the topic is of importance
-Being aware of their writing style/voice
-Willingness to be flexible during drafting and re-drafting
-Ability to think logically and convey ideas in a logical manner

In order to effectively help students become better writers, it is important to acknowledge these pitfalls and address them individually, as separate skills and issues. As an example, in order to address the difficulty students might have with presenting their ideas with logical progression of thought, we suggested a group exercise one might use in their classroom.

The exercise involved deconstructing a short, well-written essay into individual paragraphs (or sentences) and asking the students to piece the essay back together. This will encourage them to consider the progression of thought followed by the author and help them think about thought progression in their own writing. The class could then discuss the activity: What was difficult about that exercise? What was helpful to think about while you were doing this exercise? What did the author of this essay do well? What did the author do poorly? How can we apply this to our own writing?

Useful links related to this discussion:
- (Academic Success Center)
- (University Writing Program)
- (Professor John Stenzel's Home Page. Includes many useful links to other resources)

We welcome your comments and additions to this post!


Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Thinking about learning theory

Yesterday we kicked off the Fall quarter discussing NY Times article, Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits. 

After opening with neighbor check-ins over coffee and cookies, we had a recap discussion of the article's surprising conclusions,
they directly contradict much of the common wisdom about good study habits, and they have not caught on.
For instance, instead of sticking to one study location, simply alternating the room where a person studies improves retention. So does studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting, rather than focusing intensely on a single thing.
The essential theme seemed to support interleaving variety in location, content, and testing.  Someone asked how this impacts block-scheduled schools, which study only one subject at a time.  This also raised several issues about how to apply these lessons in our classrooms.  

We then broke into smaller groups to workshop specific things we could learn from this and apply with our own students.  We tried group sharing by jigsaw, rotating members of a group to the next group.  Did anyone feel like that was too many transitions?  

Meanwhile, also check out the original literature on the topic:

Thursday, September 30, 2010

Schedule for Fall 2010

Thanks for a great organizational meeting last Monday. Here's the schedule as it stands, we'll be updating it in the weeks to come.
9/27 Introduction, goals, and schedule-making
10/4 Basics: learning myths and theories
10/11 Teaching good writing (Tori and Tova)
10/18 Reflecting on your teaching (Cassandra, Karolyn)
10/25 Peer instruction
11/1 Engaging the class (Jeff)
11/8 Discussion with Scott Dawson: teaching to teach, experiences from MIC396
11/15 Assessment (Lisa, Fitz, Katie)
11/22 Write-in: statement of teaching philosophy
11/29 Teaching how to be creative, with Mikaela Huntzinger
12/6 social!
A couple other topics were discussed that we don't yet have a date for:
  • Learning styles: are they real?
  • Diversity: how to make class content culturally-relevant, how to valorize under-represented groups
  • Experimental teaching: what really radical experiments are out there?

Friday, September 10, 2010

Follow up on: "Something to Tweet About"

A few weeks ago Mara led a discussion on the role of social media in the classroom. Here's an example of how some teachers use facebook, in their classrooms and out. It's really short, Enjoy!

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Learning styles paradigm smashed?

Psychologists Mark McDaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork reviewed scientific evidence on learning styles, and...

"Our review of the literature disclosed ample evidence that children and adults will, if asked, express preferences about how they prefer information to be presented to them. There is also plentiful evidence arguing that people differ in the degree to which they have some fairly specific aptitudes for different kinds of thinking and for processing different types of information. However, we found virtually no evidence for the interaction pattern mentioned above..."

Monday, September 6, 2010

Short interesting article on study techniques

I just read a short New York Times article about study techniques and assessment. It essentially says that varying these two things with strengthen understanding and retention of material. Check it out here if you are interested!

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Interview with Lee Shulman

Good interview with Lee Shulman, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, on several teaching topics, including the use of "clickers" and lifting the "veil of anonymity" in large classes. other good podcasts on the Learning Matters site. enjoy!

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Something to tweet about

At the most recent meeting of the Graduate Teaching Community we discussed the role of social media in the classroom. We used three published articles to inspire the discussion (the citations are at the end of this post). We addressed three separate questions:

1. What is social media?

Social media is primarily an internet based way for people to share information about themselves. It is a way to establish relationships and create and maintain conversations. Some popular social media sites today include Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube, blogs, topic specific public forums, and many, many more! The literature refers to these spaces and the conversations that ensue as “computer mediated communication.” The articles that we discussed focused on the use of Facebook in the classroom, specifically, as a way to improve classroom community and make professors “feel” more accessible to students. While we did not restrict our conversation to Facebook, it was the platform that we spent the most time discussing (perhaps because every single person in the room had their own Facebook profile).

2. How can social media serve as a teaching tool?

We began by discussing the purpose of social media in the classroom. Social media may serve to improve communication between an instructor and the students. If students are not actively checking their email they may miss out on announcements from the instructor. However, by using alternative forms of communication this may improve. Communication may also increase between students if social media, such as a chat room, is used as a forum for studying and answering questions. Finally, depending on how much personal information an instructor chooses to divulge, social media may make the instructor more personally and emotionally accessible to the students. It may make the instructor appear more “human.”

Concern was expressed for how social media may only be accessible to those who have the means to use it (personal computers and time). Does social media actually impede live communication with peers? Does it promote isolation behind computers rather than foster the living, breathing community of the classroom? Also, at what point does “communication” just become spam and therefore white noise? These were questions we discussed, but were unable to settle on any one conclusion.

It was suggested that social media can foster classroom community. By sharing personal details an instructor is no longer seen as a cold authority figure, but rather someone who shares certain interests with their students. Similarly, instructors may gain additional insight into who their students are. For example, in a live-body office hours an instructor may only interact with students who are vocal and/or have the physical capabilities (i.e. time) to attend office hours. A virtual office hours via Twitter, Facebook or a chat room would allow more students to access a tutorial session and allow them all to have an equal voice.

Concerns about privacy were raised. There was general agreed reluctance to share personal profile information with students. However, creating academic profiles appeared to be a satisfactory option. There was also concern, however, about the legality of sharing private information from within a University setting. Instructors should be well aware of their legal and ethical rights and the legal requirements of their institution. The need to protect both the instructor and the student is paramount. We were challenged in our discussion to assess if the use of privately owned (for profit) media platforms are really appropriate for a classroom. We briefly debated the benefits of using open source media platforms or creating our own versus using available sources. Ultimately, it may depend on the individual and their own objectives for using social media in the classroom.

Finally, social media may serve to increase student and instructor motivation and connect classrooms. There was concern that instructors would spend too much time “tweeting” and not enough time preparing for lecture! We discussed, however, that instructors who are consciously posting interesting articles relevant to topics they research, or teach about, to their Facebook page should strive to connect these posts to lecture topics and make references to them in the classroom. This could add a new, stimulating side to teaching and help instructors keep their material relevant.

How does social media help students become life-long learners? At what point do the tweets and news feeds stop being about giving information to students and instead encourage them to analyze the gaps in their knowledge and fill those gaps critically and responsibly? Having a safe space to discuss new ideas is a crucial part of learning, and social media may provide a new venue.

3. How and why might you use social media in your classroom?

A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education (July 22) highlighted a conference in which a social media workshop was packed. Social media has the potential to change how we teach, learn and interact with each other. So how do you, or would you, implement social media in your classroom?

Several of us are considering starting a teaching-only Facebook profile for ourselves and inviting students to “friend” us. We were excited about the possibility of having our own discipline and teaching interests appear in our students’ news feeds. Would they read them? Would they spark additional classroom discussion? Would it stimulate “wall” discussions? These are some of the questions we hope to address.

The use of blogs as pedagogical tools was not fully explored at our meeting, but many of us might consider using them in the future. If nothing else, blogs may serve as a public record of our styles and teaching philosophies. This may be a useful and interactive teaching portfolio.

Hopefully, at a future GTC meeting, we can revisit this topic and learn more about open source social media. Those who proposed trying social media, or want to become more adept at using campus media services should share their outcomes. Feel to leave a comment, too, telling us how social media has (or hasn't) worked for you. If you say it on Twitter in 140 characters you should also come tell us at GTC!!


Cloete, Sonja et al. 2009. "Facebook as an academic tool for ICT lecturers".

Hewitt, A and A. Forte. 2006. "Crossing boundaries: identity management and student/faculty relationships on the Facebook".

Mazer, J.P. et al. 2007. "I'll see you on Facebook: the effects of computer-mediated teacher self-disclosure on student motivation, affective learning and classroom climate."